Three early 20th century leaders of the Scouting movement (l-to-r): Ernest Thompson Seton, Robert Baden-Powell, and Dan Beard. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Elsewhere on social media, an innocent Independence Day missive provoked a flurry of comments:
“There’s nothing more all-American than Scouting! So it’s a great day to thank you for supporting BSA… Happy 4th of July!”
To which the most relevant responder pointed out that Scouting was in fact founded by an Englishman, and that Independence Day celebrates our (US) separation from the Brits. Others (sarcastically or not) accused the Boy Scouts of America organization of either continued prejudice or abandonment of first principles, etc and so on. You can guess where I stand on principles, but I’ve often wondered about America’s love-hate relationship with our Colonial overlords back in the United Kingdom. America was first settled by people of British origin (setting aside the Native Americans who had migrated to the continent a millennium or more before). To rebel against Britain was in many ways to rebel against our own family. Yet there it was, in the Declaration of Independence:
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another…
I will let historians debate our shared Special Relationship. Here I am interested in Scouting, as a movement not a bureaucracy.
Robert Baden-Powell, the Englishman did, of course, found the game of Scouting based on his military experience in Africa and India. He also had a lot of help.
We all know the story of the Unknown Scout who helped Chicago publisher William D. Boyce through the London fog, and to a lesser extent James West who took the helm of the new Boy Scouts of America a century ago. But sometimes we forget Boyce & West didn’t just import a British idea—they brought a Scouting idea home that had many fathers.
Ernest Thompson Seton was the first Chief Scout in the BSA, and is fairly well known as a founder of Scouting in America. He is in the new Handbook, page 60 in fact. An Englishman of Scottish descent, he emigrated to Canada with his family when he was a small boy. Later settling in the New York area, Seton founded Woodcraft Indians in 1902 to give local hoodlums something to do. It is well known that B-P was influenced by The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians, which Seton published in 1906, and the Woodcraft Indians merged into the BSA when that organization was founded in 1910.
“Uncle Dan” Beard is also on page 60, fairly well known as an American founder of Scouting, at least as far as Scouting Heritage is followed these days. Daniel Carter Beard was an engineer and surveyor, and a friend of Ernest Thompson Seton. In 1882, he published the American Boy’s Handy Book, filled with illustrations and practical stuff for American Boys to do. In 1905, he founded the Sons of Daniel Boon, (aka Boy Pioneers) in celebration of American Frontiersmen such as their illustrious namesake, Kit Carson, Davey Crockett, Johnny Appleseed, James Audubon, and George Catlin. Beard became National Commissioner in the new BSA, and helped found Campfire Girls as an outdoor-oriented sister organization to the BSA.
Less well known in the US are others who contributed to B-P’s Scouting Movement. Minnesotan Frederick Russell Burnham, for example, grew up among the Sioux Indians and was an Old West scout in the Apache Wars. He went on to serve in the British Army in Africa, where he taught woodcraft to Baden-Powell. You can blame Burnham for B-P adapting the American cowboy’s bandana as the Scout Neckerchief.
Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman, a Dakota Sioux, was also from Minnesota and graduated from Dartmouth College and Boston University. He wrote about growing up in an Indian tribe on the changing frontier, including Indian Scout Craft and Lore. He worked with Seton to implement programs through the YMCA and other groups, then in establishing the BSA. It was one thing for East Coast anglo-americans to tout Indian skills, but Eastman lived them and was proud of his Native American heritage.
These are just a few of the Americans who influenced Baden-Powell in establishing the Scouting movement, and who later implemented B-P’s ideas in the USA. There may, in fact, be nothing more American than Scouting. In many ways, in reaching out in partnership between the old family in England and the the new family here in the United States to bring to life the ideals in the Declaration of Independence, Scouting as a movement is more American than America herself.